GENERAL STATUTES OF CONNECTICUT
Title 52. Civil Actions
Chapter 896. Civil Process, Service and Time for Return
(as amended in 2004)
§ 52-59b. Jurisdiction of courts over nonresident individuals, foreign partnerships and foreign voluntary associations. Service of process.
(a) As to a cause of action arising from any of the acts enumerated in this section, a court may exercise personal jurisdiction over any nonresident individual, foreign partnership or foreign voluntary association, or over the executor or administrator of such nonresident individual, foreign partnership or foreign voluntary association, who in person or through an agent: (1) Transacts any business within the state; (2) commits a tortious act within the state, except as to a cause of action for defamation of character arising from the act; (3) commits a tortious act outside the state causing injury to person or property within the state, except as to a cause of action for defamation of character arising from the act, if such person or agent (A) regularly does or solicits business, or engages in any other persistent course of conduct, or derives substantial revenue from goods used or consumed or services rendered, in the state, or (B) expects or should reasonably expect the act to have consequences in the state and derives substantial revenue from interstate or international commerce; (4) owns, uses or possesses any real property situated within the state; or (5) uses a computer, as defined in subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of section 53-451, or a computer network, as defined in subdivision (3) of subsection (a) of said section, located within the state.
(b) Where personal jurisdiction is based solely upon this section, an appearance does not confer personal jurisdiction with respect to causes of action not arising from an act enumerated in this section.
(c) Any nonresident individual, foreign partnership or foreign voluntary association, or the executor or administrator of such nonresident individual, foreign partnership or foreign voluntary association, over whom a court may exercise personal jurisdiction, as provided in subsection (a) of this section, shall be deemed to have appointed the Secretary of the State as its attorney and to have agreed that any process in any civil action brought against the nonresident individual, foreign partnership or foreign voluntary association, or the executor or administrator of such nonresident individual, foreign partnership or foreign voluntary association, may be served upon the Secretary of the State and shall have the same validity as if served upon the nonresident individual, foreign partnership or foreign voluntary association personally. The process shall be served by the officer to whom the same is directed upon the Secretary of the State by leaving with or at the office of the Secretary of the State, at least twelve days before the return day of such process, a true and attested copy thereof, and by sending to the defendant at the defendant's last-known address, by registered or certified mail, postage prepaid, return receipt requested, a like true and attested copy with an endorsement thereon of the service upon the Secretary of the State. The officer serving such process upon the Secretary of the State shall leave with the Secretary of the State, at the time of service, a fee of twenty-five dollars, which fee shall be taxed in favor of the plaintiff in the plaintiff's costs if the plaintiff prevails in any such action. The Secretary of the State shall keep a record of each such process and the day and hour of service.
GENERAL STATUTES OF CONNECTICUT
Title 52. Civil Actions
Chapter 925. Statutory Rights of Action and Defenses
(as amended in 2003)
§ 52-570b. Action for computer-related offenses.
(a) Any aggrieved person who has reason to believe that any other person has been engaged, is engaged or is about to engage in an alleged violation of any provision of section 53a-251 may bring an action against such person and may apply to the Superior Court for: (1) An order temporarily or permanently restraining and enjoining the commencement or continuance of such act or acts; (2) an order directing restitution; or (3) an order directing the appointment of a receiver. Subject to making due provisions for the rights of innocent persons, a receiver shall have the power to sue for, collect, receive and take into his possession any property which belongs to the person who is alleged to have violated any provision of section 53a-251 and which may have been derived by, been used in or aided in any manner such alleged violation. Such property shall include goods and chattels, rights and credits, moneys and effects, books, records, documents, papers, choses in action, bills, notes and property of every description including all computer system equipment and data, and including property with which such property has been commingled if it cannot be identified in kind because of such commingling. The receiver shall also have the power to sell, convey and assign all of the foregoing and hold and dispose of the proceeds thereof under the direction of the court. Any person who has suffered damages as a result of an alleged violation of any provision of section 53a-251, and submits proof to the satisfaction of the court that he has in fact been damaged, may participate with general creditors in the distribution of the assets to the extent he has sustained out-of-pocket losses. The court shall have jurisdiction of all questions arising in such proceedings and may make such orders and judgments therein as may be required.
(b) The court may award the relief applied for or such other relief as it may deem appropriate in equity.
(c) Independent of or in conjunction with an action under subsection (a) of this section, any person who suffers any injury to person, business or property may bring an action for damages against a person who is alleged to have violated any provision of section 53a-251. The aggrieved person shall recover actual damages and damages for unjust enrichment not taken into account in computing damages for actual loss, and treble damages where there has been a showing of wilful and malicious conduct.
(d) Proof of pecuniary loss is not required to establish actual damages in connection with an alleged violation of subsection (e) of section 53a-251 arising from misuse of private personal data.
(e) In any civil action brought under this section, the court shall award to any aggrieved person who prevails, reasonable costs and reasonable attorney's fees.
(f) The filing of a criminal action against a person is not a prerequisite to the bringing of a civil action under this section against such person.
(g) A civil action may be brought under this section against the state or any political subdivision thereof and the defense of governmental immunity shall not be available in any such action. The rights and liability of the state or any political subdivision thereof in each such action shall be coextensive with and shall equal the rights and liability of private persons in like circumstances.
(h) No civil action under this section may be brought but within three years from the date the alleged violation of section 53a-251 is discovered or should have been discovered by the exercise of reasonable diligence.
§ 52-570c. Action for transmission of unsolicited facsimile or telephone messages. Unsolicited electronic mail advertising material.
(a) No person shall use a machine that electronically transmits facsimiles through connection with a telephone network or a device that automatically transmits a recorded telephone message to transmit unsolicited advertising material or an unsolicited telephone message which offers to sell goods or services.
(b) (1) No person shall send unsolicited advertising material by electronic mail, or cause such material to be sent by electronic mail, to an electronic mail address held by a resident of this state unless: (A) Such person identifies in the electronic mail a toll-free telephone number or a valid return electronic mail address that the recipient may use to unsubscribe or otherwise notify the sender to not send any further unsolicited electronic mail, and (B) the subject line begins with the letters "ADV".
(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivision (1) of this subsection, no person or entity shall send by electronic mail, or cause to be sent by electronic mail, unsolicited advertising material upon notification by a recipient of such recipient's request to not receive any further such material.
(3) For purposes of this subsection, (A) "person" does not include an electronic mail service provider, as defined in section 53-451, or an Internet access provider, (B) "Internet access provider" means a person who provides underlying network facilities utilized in the transmission of Internet services, and (C) electronic mail has "unsolicited advertising material" if it includes an advertisement for products or services and is sent without the consent of the recipient by a person with whom the recipient does not have an established business relationship, and electronic mail does not have "unsolicited advertising material" if the sender has the consent of the recipient to send such mail to the receiver, or if the sender has a prior or existing business relationship formed by voluntary communication between the sender and the recipient with or without an exchange of consideration, in response to the recipient's inquiry about, application for, purchase of or use of products or services offered by the sender.
(c) The provisions of this section shall not apply to tax-exempt nonprofit organizations or to political or candidate committees or candidates or solicitors, as defined in chapter 150.
(d) Any person aggrieved by a violation of the provisions of this section may bring a civil action in the Superior Court to enjoin further violations and for five hundred dollars for each violation, together with costs and a reasonable attorney's fee. No such action shall be brought but within two years from the date of the act complained of. For purposes of this subsection, each electronic mail sent in violation of subsection (b) of this section constitutes a separate and distinct violation.
GENERAL STATUTES OF CONNECTICUT
Title 53. Crimes
Chapter 949g. Computer Crimes
(as enacted in 1999)
§ 53-451. Computer crimes
(a) As used in sections 53-451 to 53-453, inclusive, unless the context clearly requires otherwise:
(1) "Computer" means an electronic, magnetic or optical device or group of devices that, pursuant to a computer program, human instruction or permanent instructions contained in the device or group of devices, can automatically perform computer operations with or on computer data and can communicate the results to another computer or to a person. "Computer" includes any connected or directly related device, equipment or facility that enables the computer to store, retrieve or communicate computer programs, computer data or the results of computer operations to or from a person, another computer or another device.
(2) "Computer data" means any representation of information, knowledge, facts, concepts or instructions that is being prepared or has been prepared and is intended to be processed, is being processed or has been processed in a computer or computer network. "Computer data" may be in any form, whether readable only by a computer or only by a human or by either, including, but not limited to, computer printouts, magnetic storage media, punched cards or stored internally in the memory of the computer.
(3) "Computer network" means a set of related, remotely connected devices and any communications facilities including more than one computer with the capability to transmit data among them through the communications facilities.
(4) "Computer operation" means arithmetic, logical, monitoring, storage or retrieval functions and any combination thereof, and includes, but is not limited to, communication with, storage of data to or retrieval of data from any device or human hand manipulation of electronic or magnetic impulses. A "computer operation" for a particular computer may also be any function for which that computer was generally designed.
(5) "Computer program" means an ordered set of data representing coded instructions or statements that, when executed by a computer, causes the computer to perform one or more computer operations.
(6) "Computer services" means computer time or services including data processing services, Internet services, electronic mail services, electronic message services or information or data stored in connection therewith.
(7) "Computer software" means a set of computer programs, procedures and associated documentation concerned with computer data or with the operation of a computer, computer program or computer network.
(8) "Electronic mail service provider" means any person who (A) is an intermediary in sending or receiving electronic mail, and (B) provides to end-users of electronic mail services the ability to send or receive electronic mail.
(9) "Financial instrument" includes, but is not limited to, any check, draft, warrant, money order, note, certificate of deposit, letter of credit, bill of exchange, credit or debit card, transaction authorization mechanism, marketable security or any computerized representation thereof.
(10) "Owner" means an owner or lessee of a computer or a computer network, or an owner, lessee or licensee of computer data, computer programs or computer software.
(11) "Person" means a natural person, corporation, limited liability company, trust, partnership, incorporated or unincorporated association and any other legal or governmental entity, including any state or municipal entity or public official.
(12) "Property" means: (A) Real property; (B) computers and computer networks; (C) financial instruments, computer data, computer programs, computer software and all other personal property regardless of whether they are: (i) Tangible or intangible; (ii) in a format readable by humans or by a computer; (iii) in transit between computers or within a computer network or between any devices which comprise a computer; or (iv) located on any paper or in any device on which it is stored by a computer or by a human; and (D) computer services.
(13) A person "uses" a computer or computer network when such person:
(A) Attempts to cause or causes a computer or computer network to perform or to stop performing computer operations;
(B) Attempts to cause or causes the withholding or denial of the use of a computer, computer network, computer program, computer data or computer software to another user; or
(C) Attempts to cause or causes another person to put false information into a computer.
(14) A person is "without authority" when such person (A) has no right or permission of the owner to use a computer or such person uses a computer in a manner exceeding such right or permission, or (B) uses a computer, a computer network or the computer services of an electronic mail service provider to transmit unsolicited bulk electronic mail in contravention of the authority granted by or in violation of the policies set by the electronic mail service provider. Transmission of electronic mail from an organization to its members shall not be deemed to be unsolicited bulk electronic mail.
(b) It shall be unlawful for any person to use a computer or computer network without authority and with the intent to:
(1) Temporarily or permanently remove, halt or otherwise disable any computer data, computer programs or computer software from a computer or computer network;
(2) Cause a computer to malfunction, regardless of how long the malfunction persists;
(3) Alter or erase any computer data, computer programs or computer software;
(4) Effect the creation or alteration of a financial instrument or of an electronic transfer of funds;
(5) Cause physical injury to the property of another;
(6) Make or cause to be made an unauthorized copy, in any form, including, but not limited to, any printed or electronic form of computer data, computer programs or computer software residing in, communicated by or produced by a computer or computer network; or
(7) Falsify or forge electronic mail transmission information or other routing information in any manner in connection with the transmission of unsolicited bulk electronic mail through or into the computer network of an electronic mail service provider or its subscribers.
(c) It shall be unlawful for any person to knowingly sell, give or otherwise distribute or possess with the intent to sell, give or distribute software that: (1) Is primarily designed or produced for the purpose of facilitating or enabling the falsification of electronic mail transmission information or other routing information; (2) has only limited commercially significant purpose or use other than to facilitate or enable the falsification of electronic mail transmission information or other routing information; or (3) is marketed by that person or another acting in concert with that person with that person's knowledge for use in facilitating or enabling the falsification of electronic mail transmission information or other routing information.
(d) Any person who violates any provision of this section shall be guilty of a class B misdemeanor, except that if such person's reckless disregard for the consequences of such person's actions causes damage to the property of another person in an amount exceeding two thousand five hundred dollars, such person shall be guilty of a class A misdemeanor, and if such person's malicious actions cause damage to the property of another person in an amount exceeding two thousand five hundred dollars, such person shall be guilty of a class D felony.
(e) Nothing in this section shall be construed to interfere with or prohibit terms or conditions in a contract or license related to computers, computer data, computer networks, computer operations, computer programs, computer services or computer software or to create any liability by reason of terms or conditions adopted by, or technical measures implemented by, a Connecticut-based electronic mail service provider to prevent the transmission of unsolicited electronic mail in violation of this section.
§ 53-452. Civil actions. Recovery of attorney's fees and costs. Damages. Statute of limitations
(a) Any person whose property or person is injured by reason of a violation of any provision of section 53-451 may bring a civil action in the Superior Court to enjoin further violations and to recover the actual damages sustained by reason of such violation and the costs of the civil action. Without limiting the generality of the term, "damages" includes loss of profits.
(b) If the injury arises from the transmission of unsolicited bulk electronic mail, the injured person, other than an electronic mail service provider, may also recover reasonable attorneys' fees and costs, and may elect, in lieu of actual damages, to recover the lesser of ten dollars for each and every unsolicited bulk electronic mail message transmitted in violation of section 53-451 or twenty-five thousand dollars per day for each day of violation. The injured person shall not have a cause of action against the electronic mail service provider that merely transmits the unsolicited bulk electronic mail over its computer network.
(c) If the injury arises from the transmission of unsolicited bulk electronic mail, an injured electronic mail service provider may also recover reasonable attorneys' fees and costs and may elect, in lieu of actual damages, to recover the greater of ten dollars for each and every unsolicited bulk electronic mail message transmitted in violation of section 53-451 or twenty-five thousand dollars per day.
(d) At the request of any party to an action brought pursuant to this section, the court may, in its discretion, conduct all legal proceedings in such a way as to protect the secrecy and security of the computer, computer network, computer data, computer program and computer software involved in order to prevent any possible recurrence of the same or a similar act by another person and to protect any trade secrets of any party.
(e) The provisions of this section shall not be construed to limit any person's right to pursue any additional civil remedy otherwise allowed by law.
(f) A civil action under this section shall not be commenced but within two years from the date of the act complained of. In actions alleging injury arising from the transmission of unsolicited bulk electronic mail, personal jurisdiction may be exercised pursuant to section 52-59b.
§ 53-453. Civil enforcement by Attorney General
The Attorney General, acting on behalf of the state of Connecticut, may bring an action in the superior court for the judicial district in which a violation of any provision of section 53-451 occurs to enforce the provisions of said section. In any such action, the Attorney General may obtain, for the benefit of persons adversely affected by the violations of section 53-451, any relief to which such persons may be entitled. The Attorney General may combine such action with any other action within the Attorney General's power to maintain, including an action under chapter 735a. Nothing in this section shall limit the right of a person adversely affected by violations of the law from bringing a private cause of action under section 53-452 or any other law that may entitle such person to relief.
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